Guidance on Selection and
Use of Survey Instruments
Multi-Agency Radiation Survey &
Site Investigation Manual contains information on planning final status
survey measurements and the selection instruments (chapter 4), field measurement
methods and instrumentation (chapter 6) and sampling and preparation for
laboratory measurements (chapter 7).
EPA's Environmental Technology Verification
Program - or ETV - was instituted to
verify the performance of innovative technical solutions to problems that
threaten human health or the environment. ETV was created to substantially
accelerate the entrance of new environmental technologies into the domestic and
Nuclear Regulatory Commission has issued draft
reports on measurement methods and the performance of survey instruments for
Measurement Methods for Radiological Surveys in Support of New
Decommissioning Criteria –
Minimum Detectable Concentrations with Typical
Radiation Survey Instruments for Various Contaminants and Field Conditions –
information on radiation survey protocols, the Oak Ridge Institute for Science
and Education has produced a
Procedures Manual that is used in performing field measurements under their
Environmental Survey and Site Assessment Program.
Additional Survey Instrument and Detection Sensitivity References
Abelquist, E.W. and Brown, W.S. "Estimating
minimum detectable concentrations achievable while scanning building surfaces
and land areas." Health Phys. 76(1):3-10; 1999.
Altshuler, B., and B. Pasternak. "Statistical
Measures of the Lower Limit of Detection of a Radioactivity Counter."
Health Phys. 9(3):293-298; 1963.
ANSI N13.30. "Performance
Criteria for Radiobioassay."
New York: American National Standards Institute, Inc. 1996.
[NOTE: HPS Members Only Access]
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). Selection
and Use of Portable Radiological Survey Instruments for Performing In Situ
Radiological Assessments in Support of Decommissioning. E 1893-97; March 1998.
Brodsky, A. "Exact
Calculation of Probabilities of False Positives and False Negatives for Low
Health Phys. 63(2):198-204; 1992. link to
Brodsky, A. "Standardizing Minimum Detectable Amount
Formulations," Health Phys. 64(4):434-435; 1993.
Chambless, D.A., et al. "Detection
Limit Concepts: Foundations, Myths, and Utilization."
Health Phys. 63(3):338-340; 1992. link to
Currie, L.A. "Limits for Qualitative Detection and
Quantitative Determination," Analytical Chemistry 40(3):586-593. 1968. [Read
commentary on this oft-cited reference.]
International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU).
"Gamma-ray spectrometry in the environment." ICRU Report 53. Bethesda, MD: 1994.
Marianno, Craig M., et al. "An Innovative
Technique in Scanning Land Areas with a Multi-FIDLER System." Operational
Radiation Safety, supplement to Health Phys. vol. 80, suppl 2: S77-S79; May
NCRP 112. "Calibration of Survey Instruments Used in Radiation
Protection for the Assessment of Ionizing Radiation Fields and Radioactive
Surface Contamination." Bethesda, Md.: National Council on Radiation Protection
and Measurements. December 31, 1991.
NUREG/CR-4007. "Lower Limit of Detection: Definition and
Elaboration of a Proposed Position for Radiological Effluent and Environmental
Measurements." Washington, D.C.: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. 1984.
NUREG/CR-6364. "Human Performance in
Radiological Survey Scanning." Washington, D.C.: Nuclear Regulatory Commission.
Strom, D.J., and P.S. Stansbury. "Minimum
Detectable Activity When Background Is Counted Longer Than the Sample."
Health Phys. 63(3):360-1; 1992.
of G-M and Ion Chamber Beta-gamma Survey Instruments."
Health Phys. 28(6):755-761; 1975.